Rabu, 06 Januari 2010

Madu Bolehkah Untuk Bayi


Madu Bolehkah Untuk Bayi
Mother And Baby Tue, 06 Aug 2002 09:08:00 WIB

Tabloid Ibu & Anak - Madu punya banyak khasiat dan full zat gizi. Tapi hati-hati kalau mau memberikan ke bayi. Bagi orang dewasa, madu memang memberikan banyak manfaat. Namun madu ternyata tidak boleh diberikan sembarangan pada bayi. Menurut American Academy of Pediatrics, orangtua sebaiknya tidak memberi madu kepada anak di bawah usia 1 tahun, karena madu dikenal sebagai sumber spora (bibit) bakteri Clostridium botulinum.

Pada orang dewasa, bakteri ini menyebabkan keracunan dengan cara menghasilkan racun botulin, yang diserap oleh usus dan menempel pada serabut saraf. Selanjutnya, menyebabkan gejala-gejala pandangan kabur, mulut kering, sulit menelan dan berbicara, lemah, dan napas pendek. Gangguan ini dapat berlanjut ke kelumpuhan total, gagal bernapas, dan bahkan kematian.

Keracunan pada orang dewasa umumnya terjadi akibat makan makanan kaleng yang tidak diproses dengan benar, atau kadang ikan yang terkontaminasi bakteri ini. Tapi pada bayi, biasanya bukan karena memakan racun botulin, tetapi memakan sporanya. Dan madu merupakan salah satu sumber spora tersebut.

Jika orang dewasa minum madu yang mengandung spora C. botulinum, asam-asam dalam saluran pencernaan, bakteri alami, dan mekanisme lain dalam usus akan mencegah spora itu tumbuh dan menghasilkan racun. Tetapi saluran pencernaan bayi belum cukup melindungi untuk menghalangi pertumbuhan spora dan pembentukan racun tersebut, sehingga bayi keracunan. Pemanasan atau pemasakan madu dengan makanan lain tidak akan mengurangi risiko terkena botulisme, karena spora ini tahan suhu yang tinggi.

Keracunan ini jarang terjadi, namun bisa berakibat fatal, karena mempengaruhi sistem saraf bayi. Tanda-tandanya mencakup sulit bernapas, lemah otot leher, lengan, dan kaki. Bayi tidak mampu mengisap ASI atau menangis secara normal, gangguan penglihatan, tidak mampu makan atau menelan makanan, serta sembelit yang tak hilang-hilang.

Pada orang dewasa, gejala keracunan botulin biasanya tampak 12-36 jam setelah menelan bakteri, sedangkan pada bayi lebih bervariasi. Bayi yang keracunan botulin harus segera dilarikan ke ICU. Jika mendapat penanganan yang benar, bayi dapat sembuh dengan baik.

Protein Terlalu Tinggi

Pada tradisi tertentu, orangtua juga sering memberikan madu kepada bayi, entah dengan dioleskan ke bibir bayi, menyuapinya dengan sendok, atau dicampurkan ke dalam makanan seperti susu formula, air, atau obat. Namun, sebenarnya tradisi ini tak sepenuhnya aman bagi bayi.

"Kalau sekadar dioleskan ke bibir sih, tidak apa-apa," papar Dr. Rachmat Sentika, Sp.A(K). "Tapi kalau menyuapi bayi dengan madu, atau mencampurkan madu ke dalam makanan, sebaiknya jangan."
Alasannya, bukan semata karena khawatir keracunan bakteri, namun karena madu mengandung protein yang sangat tinggi. "Kandungan polipeptida, asam amino, dan juga lemak madu itu hampir sama dengan susu sapi," ungkap dokter yang berpraktik di RS Internasional Bintaro, Tangerang ini. Menurut Rachmat, kandungan protein madu antara 15-20 gram/100 cc. Padahal protein ASI atau susu formula cuma 4-9 gram/100 cc. "Hal ini tentu akan memperberat kerja ginjal bayi."

Kasus keracunan botulin pada bayi, menurut Rachmat, jarang terjadi. Namun orangtua bisa melakukan langkah-langkah pencegahan yang mudah. Misalnya, jangan menambahkan madu ke dalam makanan bayi, air, ASI, susu formula, atau obat-obatan yang diminum bayi. Jangan mencelupkan empeng bayi ke dalam madu.

Ketika anak sudah lebih dari 1 tahun, asam lambung, bakteri-bakteri alami dalam pencernaan, dan juga saluran pencernaannya sendiri sudah lebih kuat, sehingga anak pun lebih tahan terhadap spora botulinum dan ia bisa aman mengkonsumsi madu. b TG

Yang Juga 'Terlarang'untuk Usia 6-12 Bulan

Gandum atau produk gandum
Gandum merupakan penyebab utama alergi biji-bijian, dan Anda sebaiknya menunggu untuk mengenalkan gandum ini sampai bayi berusia 6-8 bulan, dan dapat menangani nasi dan oat.

Susu whole milk
Pengenalan awal susu sapi penuh (whole milk) dapat menyebabkan alergi. Dan bayi juga belum memerlukannya. Untuk tahun pertama, cukup ASI saja.

Putih telur
Boleh saja memberikan kuning telur saat bayi berusia 9 bulan, namun tunggu memberikan putih telur sampai usianya 1 tahun.

Jeruk citrus
Tanyakan kepada dokter anak, apakah boleh memberikan jus jeruk citrus kepada bayi. Kadang jeruk ini mengandung senyawa-senyawa penyebab alergi.

Selai kacang
Kacang tanah atau selai kacang dapat memicu reaksi alergi, dan sebaiknya tak diberikan kepada anak di bawah 3 tahun. b TG

Sumber: Tabloid Ibu Anak

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